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Because complete M components have molecular weights of 160 erectile dysfunction injection therapy generic megalis 20mg online,000 or higher, they are restricted to the plasma and extracellular fluid and excluded from the urine in the absence of glomerular damage. However, neoplastic plasma cells often synthesize excess light chains along with complete Igs. Occasionally only light chains are produced, and rare tumors secrete only heavy chains. In most patients with plasma cell tumors, the level of free light chains is elevated and markedly skewed toward one light chain. Because free light chains are small in size, they are also excreted in the urine, where they are referred to as Bence Jones proteins. Terms used to describe the abnormal Igs associated with plasma cell neoplasms include monoclonal gammopathy and paraproteinemia. These abnormal proteins are associated with the following clinicopathologic entities: Multiple myeloma (plasma cell myeloma), the most important plasma cell neoplasm, usually presents as tumor masses scattered throughout the skeletal system. Solitary myeloma (plasmacytoma) is an infrequent variant that presents as a single mass in bone or soft tissue. Smoldering myeloma refers to another uncommon variant defined by a lack of symptoms and a high plasma M component. It occurs in older adults, most commonly in association with lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (described later). Some patients have overt multiple myeloma, but others have only a minor clonal population of plasma cells in the marrow. With this background, we now turn to some of these specific entities; primary amyloidosis is discussed in Chapter 6. It most frequently presents as a destructive nasopharyngeal mass; less common sites of presentation include the testis and the skin. The tumor cell infiltrate typically surrounds and invades small vessels, leading to extensive ischemic necrosis. Plasma Cell Neoplasms and Related Disorders these B-cell proliferations contain neoplastic plasma cells that virtually always secrete monoclonal Ig or Ig fragments, which serve as tumor markers and often have pathologic consequences. Collectively, the plasma cell neoplasms account for about 15% of deaths caused by lymphoid neoplasms. The most common and deadly of these neoplasms Multiple Myeloma Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell neoplasm commonly associated with lytic bone lesions, hypercalcemia, renal failure, and acquired immune abnormalities. Although bony disease dominates, it can spread late in its course to lymph nodes and extranodal sites. It is chiefly a disease of older adults, with a peak age of incidence of 65 to 70 years. It is produced by the tumor cells themselves and by resident marrow stromal cells. Myeloma cell growth and survival are also augmented by direct physical interactions with bone marrow stromal cells, a phenomenon that is an area of intense research interest. Factors produced by neoplastic plasma cells mediate bone destruction, the major pathologic feature of multiple myeloma. Other factors released from tumor cells, such as modulators of the Wnt pathway, are potent inhibitors of osteoblast function. The net effect is a marked increase in bone resorption, which leads to hypercalcemia and pathologic fractures. The bones most commonly affected (in descending order of frequency) are the vertebral column, ribs, skull, pelvis, femur, clavicle, and scapula. Lesions begin in the medullary cavity, erode cancellous bone, and progressively destroy the bony cortex, often leading to pathologic fractures; these are most common in the vertebral column but may occur in any affected bone. The bone lesions appear radiographically as punched-out defects, usually 1 to 4 cm in diameter. Less commonly, widespread myelomatous bone disease produces diffuse demineralization (osteopenia) rather than focal defects. Even away from overt tumor masses, the marrow contains an increased number of plasma cells, which usually constitute more than 30% of the cellularity. The plasma cells may infiltrate the interstitium in a subtle fashion or completely replace normal elements. Normal marrow cells are largely replaced by plasma cells including forms with multiple nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and cytoplasmic droplets containing immunoglobulin. Relatively normalappearing plasma cells, plasmablasts with vesicular nuclear chromatin and a prominent single nucleolus, or bizarre, multinucleated cells may predominate. Other cytologic variants stem from the dysregulated synthesis and secretion of Ig, which often leads to intracellular accumulation of intact or partially degraded protein. Such variants include flame cells with fiery red cytoplasm, Mott cells with multiple grapelike cytoplasmic droplets, and cells containing a variety of other inclusions, including fibrils, crystalline rods, and globules. The globular inclusions are referred to as Russell bodies (if cytoplasmic) or Dutcher bodies (if nuclear). In advanced disease, plasma cell infiltrates may be present in the spleen, liver, kidneys, lungs, lymph nodes, and other soft tissues. Disorders of white cells Commonly, high levels of M protein in the blood cause red cells to stick to one another in linear arrays in smears, a finding referred to as rouleaux formation. Rarely, tumor cells flood the peripheral blood, giving rise to plasma cell leukemia. Bence Jones proteins are excreted in the kidney and contribute to a form of renal disease called myeloma kidney. The attendant hypercalcemia can give rise to neurologic manifestations, such as confusion, weakness, lethargy, constipation, and polyuria, and contributes to renal dysfunction.

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In recent years impotence quiz cheap megalis 20 mg on-line, such outbreaks have occurred several times each year in the United States. Ulcerated mucosal lesions in the oral cavity near the opening of the Stensen ducts (the pathognomonic Koplik spots) are marked by necrosis, neutrophilic exudate, and neovascularization. The lymphoid organs typically have marked follicular hyperplasia, large germinal centers, and randomly distributed multinucleate giant cells, called Warthin-Finkeldey cells, which have eosinophilic nuclear and cytoplasmic inclusion bodies. The milder forms of measles pneumonia show the same peribronchial and interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration that is seen in other nonlethal viral infections. Measles virus is very efficiently transmitted by the airborne route via aerosolized respiratory secretions. Three cell-surface receptors have been identified for measles hemagglutinin protein. Nectin-4 is found on the basal surface of epithelial cells and is thought to be important for replication of the virus within the respiratory tract, before spread of the virus in respiratory secretions. Measles can replicate in a variety of cell types, including epithelial cells and leukocytes. The virus initially multiplies within the respiratory tract and then spreads to local lymphoid tissues. Hence, the rash is less frequent in people with deficiencies in cell-mediated immunity. In addition, in malnourished children with poor medical care, measles virus may cause croup, pneumonia, diarrhea and protein-losing enteropathy, keratitis leading to scarring and blindness, encephalitis, and hemorrhagic rashes. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (Chapter 28) and measles inclusion body encephalitis (in Mumps Mumps is an acute systemic viral infection usually associated with pain and swelling of the salivary glands. Mumps virus has two types of surface glycoproteins, one with hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activities and the other with cell fusion and cytolytic activities. Viral infections (preferentially in activated T cells), and then spread through the blood to the salivary and other glands. Mumps virus infects salivary gland ductal epithelial cells, resulting in desquamation of involved cells, edema, and inflammation that leads to the classic salivary gland pain and swelling. Aseptic meningitis is the most common extrasalivary gland complication of mumps, occurring in up to 15% of cases. In the United States, outbreaks of mumps have occurred in populations with close contact. It is important to note that this is still more than 99% fewer cases than occurred annually in the United States before use of the mumps vaccine. The virus is ingested and replicates in the mucosa of the pharynx and gut, including tonsils and Peyer patches in the ileum. Poliovirus then spreads through lymphatics to lymph nodes and eventually the blood, producing transient viremia and fever. Antiviral antibodies control the disease in most cases; it is not known why they fail to contain the virus in some individuals. Viral spread to the nervous system may be through the blood or by retrograde transport of the virus along axons of motor neurons. Rare cases of poliomyelitis that occur after vaccination are caused by mutations in the attenuated viruses to revert to wild-type, virulent, forms. The neurologic features and neuropathology of poliovirus infection are described in Chapter 28. The affected glands are enlarged, have a doughy consistency, and are moist, glistening, and reddish-brown on cross-section. On microscopic examination, the gland interstitium is edematous and diffusely infiltrated by macrophages, lymphocytes, and plasma cells, which compress acini and ducts. Neutrophils and necrotic debris may fill the duct lumen and cause focal damage to the lining epithelium. In mumps orchitis, testicular swelling may be marked, caused by edema, mononuclear cell infiltration, and focal hemorrhages. Because the testis is tightly contained within the tunica albuginea, parenchymal swelling may compromise the blood supply and cause areas of infarction. Infection and damage of acinar cells in the pancreas may release digestive enzymes, causing parenchymal and fat necrosis and neutrophil-rich inflammation. Mumps encephalitis is associated with perivenous demyelination and perivascular mononuclear cuffing. West Nile Virus Infections West Nile Virus causes an acute systemic infection that has two very different presentations: a mild, self-limited infection or neuroinvasive disease associated with long-term neurologic sequelae. West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) of the flavivirus group, which also includes viruses that cause dengue fever and yellow fever. West Nile virus has a broad geographic distribution in the Old World, including Africa, the Middle East, Europe, Southeast Asia, and Australia. It was first detected in the United States in 1999 during an outbreak in New York City and has since spread across the United States; in 2017, a least one case was reported in 47 states. Infected birds develop prolonged viremia and are the major reservoir for the virus. Most affected patients acquire the infection from a mosquito bite; less commonly, humanto-human transmission occurs by blood transfusion, organ transplantation, breastfeeding, or transplacental spread. After inoculation by a mosquito, West Nile virus replicates in skin dendritic cells, which then migrate to lymph nodes.

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With a loss of fat erectile dysfunction medicines megalis 20mg generic, measured skinfold thickness (which includes skin and subcutaneous tissue) is reduced. If the somatic protein compartment is catabolized, the resultant reduction in muscle mass is reflected by reduced circumference of the midarm. Measurement of serum proteins (albumin, transferrin, and others) provides an estimate of the adequacy of the visceral protein compartment. Malnutrition was induced in host mice by fecal transplants from affected but not well-nourished children. A child is considered to have marasmus when weight falls to 60% of normal for sex, height, and age. A marasmic child suffers growth retardation and loss of muscle mass as a result of catabolism and depletion of the somatic protein compartment. This seems to be an adaptive response that provides the body with amino acids as a source of energy. Of interest, the visceral protein compartment, which presumably is more critical for survival, is depleted only marginally, so serum albumin levels are either normal or only slightly reduced. In addition to muscle proteins, subcutaneous fat is also mobilized and used as fuel. Leptin (discussed later under "Obesity") production is low, which may stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal axis to produce high levels of cortisol that contribute to lipolysis. Due to losses of muscle and subcutaneous fat, the extremities are emaciated; by comparison, the head appears too large for the body. Hence, concurrent infections are usually present, which impose additional stress on a weakened body. Kwashiorkor occurs when protein deprivation is relatively greater than the reduction in total calories. The prevalence of kwashiorkor also is high in lower income countries of Southeast Asia. Less severe forms occur worldwide in persons with chronic diarrheal states, in which protein is not absorbed, or in persons with chronic protein loss. Rare cases of kwashiorkor resulting from fad diets or replacement of milk by rice-based beverages have been reported in the United States. In kwashiorkor, unlike in marasmus, marked protein deprivation is associated with severe loss of the visceral protein compartment, and the resultant hypoalbuminemia gives rise to generalized or dependent edema. However, the true loss of weight is masked by the increased fluid retention (edema). In further contrast with marasmus, there is relative sparing of subcutaneous fat and muscle mass. Children with kwashiorkor have characteristic skin lesions with alternating zones of hyperpigmentation, desquamation, and hypopigmentation, giving a "flaky paint" appearance. Hair changes include loss of color or alternating bands of pale and darker color, straightening, fine texture, and loss of firm attachment to the scalp. Other features that distinguish kwashiorkor from marasmus include an enlarged, fatty liver (resulting from reduced synthesis of the carrier protein component of lipoproteins) and the development of apathy, listlessness, and loss of appetite. Like marasmus, vitamin deficiencies are likely to be present, as are defects in immunity and secondary infections, which produce inflammation and a catabolic state that aggravates the malnutrition. As already mentioned, marasmus and kwashiorkor represent two ends of a spectrum, and considerable overlap exists. The bone marrow in both kwashiorkor and marasmus may be hypoplastic, mainly as a result of decreased numbers of red cell precursors. The peripheral blood commonly reveals mild to moderate anemia, which is often multifactorial in origin; nutritional deficiencies of iron, folate, and protein, as well as the suppressive effects of infection (anemia of chronic inflammation) may all contribute. Depending on the predominant factor, the red cells may be microcytic, normocytic, or macrocytic. Many other changes may be present including (1) thymic and lymphoid atrophy (more marked in kwashiorkor than in marasmus); (2) anatomic alterations induced by intercurrent infections, particularly with all manner of endemic worms and other parasites; and (3) deficiencies of other required nutrients such as iodine and vitamins. Because of its common association with cancer, cachexia is discussed in Chapter 7. Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Anorexia nervosa is self-induced starvation, resulting in marked weight loss; bulimia is a condition in which the patient binges on food and then induces vomiting. Bulimia is more common than anorexia nervosa and generally has a better prognosis; it is estimated to occur in 1% to 2% of women and 0. These eating disorders occur primarily in previously healthy young women who have developed an obsession with body image and thinness. The neurobiologic underpinnings of these diseases are unknown, but it has been suggested that altered serotonin metabolism may be an important component. Amenorrhea, resulting from decreased secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and (as a result) luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone, is so common that its presence is considered a diagnostic feature. Other common findings related to decreased thyroid hormone release include cold intolerance, bradycardia, constipation, and changes in the skin and hair. Increased fat in the marrow (paradoxically, since fat is decreased elsewhere) associated with a peculiar deposition of mucinous matrix material that is referred to as gelatinous transformation is virtually pathognomonic for anorexia nervosa. The bone density is decreased, most likely because of low estrogen levels, mimicking the postmenopausal acceleration of osteoporosis. Anemia, lymphopenia, and hypoalbuminemia may Malnutrition in the Upper Income World. In the United States, secondary malnutrition often develops in chronically ill, older, and bedridden patients. It is estimated that more than 50% of older residents in nursing homes in the United States are malnourished.

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This often takes the form of T-cell responses; in some cases erectile dysfunction 16 years old discount 20mg megalis with mastercard, antibodies that cross-react with neuronal cell antigens are detected. Acanthosis nigricans is a disorder characterized by grayblack patches of thickened, hyperkeratotic skin with a velvety appearance. It occurs rarely as a genetically determined disease in juveniles or adults (Chapter 25). In about 50% of the cases, particularly in adults older than age 40, the appearance of such lesions is associated with cancer, most commonly carcinoma of the stomach. Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy is encountered in 1% to 10% of patients with lung carcinoma. This disorder is characterized by (1) periosteal new bone formation, primarily at the distal ends of long bones, metatarsals, metacarpals, and proximal phalanges; (2) arthritis of the adjacent joints; and (3) clubbing of the digits. Although osteoarthropathy is seldom seen in noncancer patients, clubbing of the fingertips may be encountered in patients with liver diseases, diffuse lung disease, congenital cyanotic heart disease, ulcerative colitis, and other disorders. Several vascular and hematologic manifestations may appear in association with a variety of cancers. As mentioned in the discussion of thrombosis (Chapter 4), migratory thrombophlebitis (Trousseau syndrome) may be encountered in association with deep-seated cancers, most often carcinomas of the pancreas or lung. Disseminated intravascular coagulation may complicate a diversity of clinical disorders (Chapter 14); among cancers, it is most commonly associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia and prostatic adenocarcinoma. Bland, small, nonbacterial fibrinous vegetations sometimes form on the cardiac valve leaflets (more often on left-sided valves), particularly in individuals with advanced mucin-secreting adenocarcinomas. These lesions, called nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, are described further Grading and Staging of Tumors Methods to quantify the probable clinical aggressiveness of a given neoplasm and its apparent extent and spread are necessary for accurate prognostication and for comparing results of various treatments. For instance, the results of treating well-differentiated thyroid adenocarcinoma that is localized to the thyroid gland will be different from those obtained from treating highly anaplastic thyroid cancers that have invaded surrounding tissues. Systems have been developed that use the level of differentiation, or grade, and the extent of cancer spread, or stage, as parameters of the clinical gravity of the disease. Grading of a cancer is based on the degree of differentiation of the tumor cells and, in some cancers, the number of mitoses or architectural features. Grading schemes have evolved for each type of malignancy and generally range from two (low grade and high grade) to four categories. Criteria for the individual grades vary in different types of tumors and so are not detailed here, but all attempt, in essence, to judge the extent to which the tumor cells resemble or fail to resemble their normal counterparts. Although histologic grading is useful, the correlation between histologic appearance and biologic behavior is less than perfect. In recognition of this problem and to avoid spurious quantification, it is common practice to characterize a particular neoplasm in descriptive terms, for example, well-differentiated, mucin-secreting adenocarcinoma of the stomach, or poorly differentiated pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The staging of solid cancers is based on the size of the primary lesion, whether it has spread to regional lymph nodes, and the presence or absence of blood-borne metastases. The major staging system currently in use is the American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging. N0 would mean no nodal involvement, whereas N1 to N3 would denote involvement of an increasing number and range of nodes. M0 signifies no distant metastases, whereas M1 or sometimes M2 indicates the presence of metastases and some judgment as to their number. It is increasingly apparent, however, that the molecular features of solid tumors provide important complementary prognostic information that is independent of anatomic staging of cancers. It can be anticipated that as molecular characterization of all cancers becomes widespread, many more prognostic schemes incorporating both anatomic and molecular information will become a routine part of standard-of-care clinical and pathologic practice. Requesting "quick-frozen section" diagnosis is sometimes desirable, for example, in determining the nature of a mass lesion, in evaluating the margins of an excised cancer to ascertain that the entire neoplasm has been removed, or in making decisions about what additional studies beyond histology are needed. In experienced, competent hands, frozen-section diagnosis is highly accurate, but there are particular instances in which the superior morphologic detail provided by standard histology is needed-for example, when extremely radical surgery, such as the amputation of an extremity, may be indicated. Better to wait a day or two, despite the delay, than to perform inadequate or unnecessary surgery. The procedure involves aspirating cells and attendant fluid with a small-bore needle, followed by cytologic examination of the stained smear. This method is used most commonly for assessment of readily palpable lesions in sites such as the breast, thyroid, and lymph nodes. With guidance from imaging, the method can also be used to evaluate lesions in deep-seated structures, such as pelvic lymph nodes and pancreas. Fine-needle aspiration is less invasive and more rapidly performed than needle biopsies, and it obviates surgery and its attendant risks. While it may be confounded by sampling errors, in experienced hands it is rapid and quite reliable. This approach is most widely used to screen for carcinoma of the cervix and its precursor lesions, but it is suitable for evaluation of any form of suspected malignancy in which tumor cells are shed into fluids or are easily accessible. Types of specimens that are commonly examined in cytologic smears for cancer cells include urine, cerebrospinal fluid, pleural effusions, and bronchial washes. As pointed out earlier, cancer cells have lowered cohesiveness and exhibit a range of morphologic changes encompassed by the term anaplasia. Thus shed cells can be evaluated for the features of anaplasia indicative of their origin from a tumor. In these cases, judgment must be rendered based on the features of individual cells or, at most, a clump of cells, without the supporting evidence of loss of orientation of one cell to another, and (most importantly) evidence of invasion. This method permits differentiation among normal, dysplastic, and malignant cells and, in addition, permits the recognition of cellular changes characteristic of carcinoma in situ. The gratifying control of cervical cancer through screening with Pap smears is the best testament to the value of cytology. Although histology and exfoliative cytology remain the foundation of cancer diagnosis, they have inherent limits; for example, it can be difficult to determine the nature and tissue of origin of a poorly differentiated tumor, and some specific tumor types are notoriously difficult to distinguish based on their morphologic appearance alone.

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Sailors of the British Royal Navy were nicknamed "limeys" because at the end of the 18th century the Navy began to provide lime and lemon juice (rich sources of vitamin C) to sailors to prevent scurvy during their long sojourn at sea erectile dysfunction treatment orlando megalis 20 mg purchase. Ascorbic acid is not synthesized endogenously in humans; therefore we are entirely dependent on the diet for this nutrient. Vitamin C is present in milk and some animal products (liver, fish) and is abundant in a variety of fruits and vegetables. The unmineralized osteoid appears as a thickened layer of matrix (which stains pink in hematoxylin and eosin preparations) arranged about the more basophilic, normally mineralized trabeculae. As mentioned earlier, the vitamin D receptor is present in various cells and tissues that do not participate in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. In addition, macrophages, keratinocytes, and tissues such as breast, prostate, and colon can produce 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. The net effect of this altered gene expression on the immune response remains to be determined, however, and clinical trials have failed to demonstrate beneficial effects of vitamin D supplements on the course of respiratory infections, including tuberculosis. Prolonged exposure to normal sunlight does not produce an excess of vitamin D, but megadoses of orally administered vitamin can lead to hypervitaminosis. In children, hypervitaminosis D may take the form of metastatic calcifications of soft tissues such as the kidney; in adults, it causes bone pain and hypercalcemia. The toxic potential of this vitamin is so great that in sufficiently large doses it is a potent rodenticide. Ascorbic acid has many functions affecting a variety of processes: Collagen synthesis. The best-established function of vitamin C is the activation of prolyl and lysyl hydroxylases from inactive precursors, providing for hydroxylation of procollagen. Inadequately hydroxylated procollagen cannot acquire a stable helical configuration, so it is poorly secreted from the fibroblast. Those molecules that are secreted are inadequately cross-linked, lack tensile strength, and are more soluble and vulnerable to enzymatic degradation. Collagen, which normally has the highest content of hydroxyproline of any polypeptide, is most affected, particularly in blood vessels, accounting for the predisposition to hemorrhages in scurvy. Synthesis of norepinephrine requires hydroxylation of dopamine, a step that requires vitamin C. The effect on the latter two has formed the basis of clinical trials based on supplementation of vitamin C in sepsis. Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) A deficiency of water-soluble vitamin C leads to the development of scurvy, characterized principally by bone disease in growing children and by hemorrhages and Deficiency States. Nutritional diseases of ascorbic acid in many foods, scurvy has ceased to be a global problem. It is sometimes encountered even in affluent populations as a secondary deficiency, particularly among older individuals, persons who live alone, and chronic alcoholics, groups that often have erratic and inadequate eating patterns. Occasionally, scurvy occurs in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis and in food faddists. The condition also sometimes appears in infants who are maintained on formulas of evaporated milk without supplementation of vitamin C. Secondary malnutrition occurs in the chronically ill and in patients with advanced cancer (as a result of cachexia). Vitamin A is required for vision, epithelial differentiation, and immune function. Vitamin C is needed for collagen synthesis and collagen crosslinking and tensile strength. The popular notion that megadoses of vitamin C protect against the common cold, or at least allay the symptoms, has not been borne out by controlled clinical studies. Such slight relief as may be experienced is probably due to the mild antihistamine action of ascorbic acid. Similarly, there is no evidence that large doses of vitamin C protect against cancer development. The physiologic availability of excess vitamin C is limited due to its inherent instability, poor intestinal absorption, and rapid urinary excretion. Other vitamins and some essential minerals are listed and briefly described in Tables 9. Unless otherwise noted, the term obesity herein applies to both truly obese and overweight individuals. Obesity is associated with several of the most important diseases of humans, including type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and cancer. The strength of this association is affected not only by the quantity of excess fat but also by its distribution. Central, or visceral, obesity, in which excess fat accumulates preferentially in the trunk and in the abdominal cavity (in the mesentery and around viscera), is associated with a much higher risk for several diseases than is excess accumulation of subcutaneous fat. Obesity is a major public health problem in higher income countries and an emerging health problem in lower income nations, such as India. Equally troubling is the prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents, approximately one-third of whom are obese. The increase in obesity in the United States has been associated with the higher caloric content of the diet, mostly caused by increased consumption of refined sugars, sweetened beverages, and vegetable oils. The two sides of the energy equation, intake and expenditure, are finely regulated by neural and hormonal mechanisms so that body weight is maintained within a narrow range for many years.


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As in X-linked agammaglobulinemia erectile dysfunction quiz test buy megalis 20 mg without a prescription, these patients have a high frequency of autoimmune diseases (approximately 20%), including rheumatoid arthritis. The risk of lymphoid malignancy is also increased, and an increase in gastric cancer has been reported. Other Defects in Lymphocyte Activation Many rare cases of lymphocyte activation defects have been described, affecting antigen receptor signaling and various biochemical pathways. Mutations affecting Th1 responses are associated with atypical mycobacterial infections; the syndrome is called Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease. Inherited defects in Th17 responses lead to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and bacterial infections of the skin (a disorder called Job syndrome). Immunodeficiencies Associated With Systemic Diseases In some inherited systemic disorders, immune deficiency is a prominent clinical problem. Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is an X-linked disease characterized by thrombocytopenia, eczema, and a marked vulnerability to recurrent infection, resulting in early death. The thymus is morphologically normal, at least early in the course of the disease, but there is progressive loss of T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and in the T-cell zones (paracortical areas) of the lymph nodes, with variable defects in cellular immunity. Patients do not make antibodies to polysaccharide antigens, and the response to protein antigens is poor. Ataxia Telangiectasia Ataxia telangiectasia is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by abnormal gait (ataxia), vascular malformations (telangiectases), neurologic deficits, increased incidence of tumors, and immunodeficiency. The most prominent humoral immune abnormalities are defective production of isotype-switched antibodies, mainly IgA and IgG2. The T-cell defects, which are usually less pronounced, are associated with thymic hypoplasia. Patients experience upper and lower respiratory tract bacterial infections, multiple autoimmune phenomena, and increasingly frequent cancers with advancing age. Like several other immunodeficiency syndromes, patients with ataxia telangiectasia have a markedly increased incidence of lymphoma. Secondary Immunodeficiencies Secondary (acquired) immune deficiencies may be encountered in individuals with cancer, diabetes and other metabolic diseases, malnutrition, chronic infection, and in persons receiving chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer, or immunosuppressive drugs to prevent graft rejection or to treat autoimmune diseases (Table 6. As a group, the secondary immune deficiencies are more common than the disorders of primary genetic origin. Some of these secondary immunodeficiency states can be caused by defective lymphocyte maturation (when the bone marrow is damaged by radiation or chemotherapy or involved by tumors, such as leukemias), inadequate Ig synthesis (as in malnutrition), or lymphocyte depletion (from drugs or severe infections). Because of public health measures, the infection rate seems to be decreasing, and some authorities believe it may have peaked in the late 1990s. Furthermore, improved antiviral therapies have resulted in fewer people dying of the disease. However, these newer treatments are not readily available in many low income countries, and toxic side effects remain a problem. Heterosexual spread of the virus is occurring most rapidly in female sex workers and in women in long-term marital or cohabitating relationships, particularly among adolescents. Intravenous drug users with no previous history of homosexuality are the next largest group, representing about 20% of infected individuals. The case distribution in these groups is as follows: Men who have sex with men account for more than 50% of the reported cases. The three major routes of transmission are sexual contact, parenteral inoculation, and passage of the virus from infected mothers to their newborns. Because the majority of infected people in the United States are men who have sex with men, most sexual transmission has occurred among homosexual men. In addition to male-to-male and male-to-female transmission, female-to-male transmission also occurs. Currently, this risk is estimated to be 1 in more than 2 million units of blood transfused. Infected mothers can transmit the infection to their offspring by three routes: (1) in utero by transplacental spread, (2) during delivery through an infected birth canal, and (3) after birth by ingestion of breast milk. Of these, transmission during birth (intrapartum) and in the immediate period thereafter (peripartum) is considered to be the most common mode in the United States. The reported transmission rates vary from 7% to 49% in different parts of the world. Seroconversion has been documented after accidental needle-stick injury or exposure of nonintact skin to infected blood in laboratory accidents. After needlestick accidents, the risk of seroconversion is believed to be about 0. The viral particle is covered by a lipid bilayer derived from the host cell and studded with viral glycoproteins gp41 and gp120. The viral core is surrounded by a matrix protein called p17, which lies underneath the virion envelope. The products of the gag and pol genes are large precursor proteins that are cleaved by the viral protease to yield the mature proteins. For example, the product of the tat (transactivator) gene causes a 1000-fold increase in the transcription of viral genes and is critical for virus replication. Included in this group are feline immunodeficiency virus, simian immunodeficiency virus, visna virus of sheep, bovine immunodeficiency virus, and the equine infectious anemia virus. The infection becomes established in lymphoid tissues, where the virus may remain latent for long periods.

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The correlation with maternal age suggests that in most cases the meiotic nondisjunction of chromosome 21 occurs in the ovum erectile dysfunction guilt in an affair purchase megalis 20mg online. Although many hypotheses have been advanced, the reason for the increased susceptibility of the ovum to nondisjunction remains unknown. In about 4% of cases of Down syndrome the extra chromosomal material derives from the presence of a robertsonian translocation of the long arm of chromosome 21 to another acrocentric chromosome. Because the fertilized ovum already possesses two normal autosomes 21, the translocated material provides the same triple gene dosage as in trisomy 21. In cells with robertsonian translocations, the genetic material normally found on long arms of two pairs of chromosomes is distributed among only three chromosomes. This affects chromosome pairing during meiosis, and as a result the gametes have a high probability of being aneuploid. Approximately 1% of patients with Down syndrome are mosaics, having a mixture of cells with 46 or 47 chromosomes. This mosaicism results from mitotic nondisjunction of chromosome 21 during an early stage of embryogenesis. Symptoms in such cases are variable and milder, depending on the proportion of abnormal cells. Clearly, in cases of translocation or mosaic Down syndrome, maternal age is of no importance. Chromosomal disorders on other chromosomes, making the task of identification of genes whose products dictate the phenotype of trisomy 21 exceedingly difficult. Much progress is being made in the molecular diagnosis of Down syndrome prenatally. This is a powerful noninvasive screening test for prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 21 as well as other trisomies. Most laboratories require confirmation of a positive screening test with conventional karyotyping. In fact, it is estimated that schizophrenia develops in approximately 25% of adults with this syndrome. Conversely, deletions of the region can be found in 2% to 3% of individuals with childhood-onset schizophrenia. In addition, attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder is seen in 30% to 35% of affected children. By this test, approximately 90% of individuals previously diagnosed as having DiGeorge syndrome and 80% of those with the velocardiofacial syndrome have a deletion of 22q11. Thirty percent of individuals with conotruncal cardiac defects but no other features of this syndrome also reveal deletions of the same chromosomal region. The clinical heterogeneity, with predominant immunodeficiency in some cases (DiGeorge syndrome) and predominant dysmorphology and cardiac malformations in other cases, probably reflects the variable position and size of the deleted segment from this genetic region. This gene is expressed in the pharyngeal mesenchyme and endodermal pouch from which facial structures, thymus, and parathyroid are derived. Clearly there are other genes that contribute to the behavioral and psychiatric disorders that remain to be identified. Only trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome) and trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) are common enough to merit brief mention here. Thus most cases result from meiotic nondisjunction and therefore carry a complete extra copy of chromosome 13 or 18. In contrast to trisomy 21, however, the malformations are much more severe and wide ranging. The syndrome is fairly common, occurring in as many as 1 in 4000 births, but it is often missed because of variable clinical features. These include congenital heart defects, abnormalities of the palate, facial dysmorphism, developmental delay, and variable degrees of T-cell immunodeficiency and hypocalcemia. Previously, these clinical features were considered to represent two different disorders-DiGeorge syndrome and velocardiofacial syndrome. Patients with DiGeorge syndrome have thymic hypoplasia, with resultant T-cell immunodeficiency (Chapter 6), parathyroid hypoplasia giving rise to hypocalcemia, a variety of cardiac malformations affecting the outflow tract, and mild facial anomalies. The clinical features of the so-called velocardiofacial syndrome include facial dysmorphism (prominent nose, retrognathia), cleft palate, cardiovascular anomalies, and learning disabilities. Recent studies indicate that, in addition to the numerous structural malformations, individuals with the 22q11. The metaphase spread shows one chromosome 22 with both a green signal (control probe) and a red signal (from the 22q11. The other chromosome 22 shows only hybridization with the control probe (green), but no red 22q11. The interphase cell also shows a hybridization pattern consistent with a deletion of chromosome 22q11. Molecular studies suggest that 30% of genes on Xp and a smaller number (3%) on Xq escape X inactivation. At least some of the genes that are expressed from both X chromosomes are important for normal growth and development. This notion is supported by the fact that patients with monosomy of the X chromosome (Turner syndrome: 45,X) have severe somatic and gonadal abnormalities. If a single dose of X-linked genes were sufficient, no detrimental effect would be expected in such cases. Furthermore, although one X chromosome is inactivated in all cells during embryogenesis, it is selectively reactivated in oogonia before the first meiotic division. Thus, it seems that both X chromosomes are required for normal growth as well as oogenesis. The tips of short and long arms of X and Y chromosomes have regions of homology that recombine during meiosis and are therefore inherited as autosomal loci.

Cowchock Wapner Kurtz syndrome

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In children erectile dysfunction in teens buy 20 mg megalis, painful bone crises are extremely common and often difficult to distinguish from acute osteomyelitis. These frequently manifest as the hand-foot syndrome or dactylitis of the bones of the hands and feet. Acute chest syndrome is a particularly dangerous type of vaso-occlusive crisis involving the lungs that typically presents with fever, cough, chest pain, and pulmonary infiltrates. Pulmonary inflammation (such as may be induced by an infection) may cause blood flow to become sluggish and "spleenlike," leading to sickling and vaso-occlusion. This compromises pulmonary function, creating a potentially fatal cycle of worsening pulmonary and systemic hypoxemia, sickling, and vaso-occlusion. Priapism affects up to 45% of males after puberty and may lead to hypoxic damage and erectile dysfunction. Other disorders related to vascular obstruction, particularly stroke and retinopathy leading to loss of visual acuity and even blindness, can take a devastating toll. Dennis Burns and Darren Wirthwein, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, Tex. Although occlusive crises are the most common cause of patient morbidity and mortality, several other acute events complicate the course. Massive entrapment of sickled red cells leads to rapid splenic enlargement, hypovolemia, and sometimes shock. Both sequestration crises and the acute chest syndrome may be fatal and sometimes require prompt treatment with exchange transfusions. Aplastic crises stem from the infection of red cell progenitors by parvovirus B19, which causes a transient cessation of erythropoiesis and a sudden worsening of the anemia. In addition to these dramatic crises, chronic tissue hypoxia takes a subtle but important toll. Chronic hypoxia is responsible for a generalized impairment of growth and development, as well as organ damage affecting the spleen, heart, kidneys, and lungs. Sickling provoked by hypertonicity in the renal medulla causes damage that eventually leads to hyposthenuria (the inability to concentrate urine), which increases the propensity for dehydration and its attendant risks. Increased susceptibility to infection with encapsulated organisms is another threat. This is due in large part to altered splenic function, which is severely impaired in children by congestion and poor blood flow, and completely absent in adults because of splenic infarction. Defects of uncertain etiology in the alternative complement pathway also impair the opsonization of bacteria. Pneumococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae septicemia and meningitis are common, particularly in children, but can be reduced by vaccination and prophylactic antibiotics. It must be emphasized that there is great variation in the clinical manifestations of sickle cell disease. Some individuals suffer repeated vaso-occlusive crises, whereas others have only mild symptoms. The basis for this wide range in disease expression is not understood; both modifying genes and environmental factors are suspected. The diagnosis is suggested by the clinical findings and the presence of irreversibly sickled red cells and is confirmed by various tests for sickle hemoglobin. Newborn screening for sickle hemoglobin is now routinely performed in all 50 states, typically using samples obtained by heel stick at birth. The outlook for patients with sickle cell disease has improved considerably over the past 10 to 20 years. About 90% of patients survive to 20 years of age, and close to 50% survive beyond the fifth decade. These include (1) an increase in red cell HbF levels, which occurs by unknown mechanisms; and (2) an anti-inflammatory effect, which stems from an inhibition of leukocyte production. These activities (and possibly others) are believed to act in concert to decrease crises related to vascular occlusions in both children and adults. When added to hydroxyurea, L-glutamine has been shown to decrease pain crises; the mechanism is uncertain, but it may involve changes in metabolism that decrease oxidant stress in red cells. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation offers a chance at cure and is increasingly being explored as a therapeutic option. A clinical trial testing this approach is ongoing and has produced excellent responses. Thalassemia Thalassemia is a genetically heterogeneous disorder caused by germline mutations that decrease the synthesis of either -globin or -globin, leading to anemia, tissue hypoxia, and red cell hemolysis related to the imbalance in globin chain synthesis. The two chains in HbA are encoded by an identical pair of -globin genes on chromosome 16, and the two chains are encoded by a single -globin gene on chromosome 11. The hematologic consequences of diminished synthesis of one globin chain stem not only from hemoglobin deficiency but also from a relative excess of the other globin chain, particularly in -thalassemia (described later). Thalassemia is endemic in the Mediterranean basin (indeed, thalassa means "sea" in Greek) as well as the Middle East, tropical Africa, the Indian subcontinent, and Asia, and in aggregate is among the most common inherited disorders of humans. As with sickle cell disease and other common inherited red cell disorders, its prevalence seems to be explained by the protection it affords heterozygous carriers against malaria. Although we discuss thalassemia with other inherited forms of anemia associated with hemolysis, it is important to recognize that the defects in globin synthesis that underlie these disorders cause anemia through two mechanisms: decreased red cell production, and decreased red cell lifespan. Its clinical severity varies widely due to heterogeneity in the causative mutations. We will begin our discussion with the molecular lesions in -thalassemia and then relate the clinical variants to specific underlying molecular defects. Molecular Pathogenesis the causative mutations fall into two categories: (1) 0 mutations, associated with absent -globin synthesis, and (2) + mutations, characterized by reduced (but detectable) -globin synthesis.

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Because these perturbations do not impact the nucleotide sequences impotence vacuum pump buy megalis 20 mg with mastercard, current genotyping approaches do not detect epigenetic changes. Nevertheless, new technologies are integrating epigenetic analyses into transcriptomic studies and have begun to uncover the extent and dynamic nature of the epigenetic perturbations resulting from xenobiotic exposure. It is unlikely that the relevant epigenetic changes may be liver specific and not detected in blood or saliva most commonly used in clinical studies. Although many genetic associations have been identified, translating these findings into the clinic has been slow. For example, if a patient carried a previously identified risk allele for a specific drug (Tables 28. Furthermore, computational approaches are becoming more readily accepted and have provided a resource to integrate experimental data from multiple sources. Many cell culture models have been used for this purpose, including hepatoma cell lines, primary human hepatocytes, and stem-cell-derived hepatocytes. Cell lines are by far the easiest and most readily available cellular model for toxicity testing. However, some hepatoma cell lines have limited expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters compared to primary human hepatocytes. As a result, primary human hepatocytes are preferred for hepatotoxicity studies [114]. Suspension cells are often used for the prediction of human clearance as these preparations maintain higher levels of enzyme activity than their plated counterparts [115]. However suspension cultures have a limited lifespan and lack some important aspects of hepatic physiology, making their usefulness for toxicity studies somewhat limited. Plating hepatocytes in a monoculture can extend their lifespan beyond suspension cultures and, when cultured between two layers of collagen (sandwich configuration), they have been shown to retain more in vivo like properties including improved cell morphology and normal level of hepatic proteins. These cells can also form functional canalicular networks with polarized transport making them particularly useful for evaluating hepatobiliary transporter-based drug interactions and hepatotoxicity [116]. Although primary human hepatocytes offer many advantages over cell lines, they also have many limitations. The phenotypic instability over time in culture, scarce and irregular availability of tissue for cell isolations, poor plating performance of certain lots, and high donor variability make them difficult to use in routine testing [114]. Stem-cell-based models are a newer alternative to cell lines and primary hepatocytes. Several approaches have been taken to improve upon the phenotypic relevance of liver culture models, including the addition of nonparenchymal cell types, 3D culture formats, and dynamic flow [114]. These upgrades help to create a more organotypic model that better mimics the dynamic in vivo environment. Coculture systems have been shown to improve the longevity of hepatocyte cultures as well as enable cross-talk between hepatocyte and nonparenchymal cells, possibly minimizing discrepancies between in vitro and in vivo results [34]. More recently, several groups demonstrated the culture of hepatocytes either alone or together with nonparenchymal cells in 3D microspheroids [117,118]. The addition of flow helps to create oxygen tension, shear stress, and clearance properties that more closely reflect hepatocytes in vivo [119,120]. Finally, use of bioprinting has helped to generate 3D primary liver tissues that allow for the assessment of organ-level responses [121,122]. Eventually the hope is that these liver models could be connected to other organ systems using dynamic fluid flow to create a "human on a chip. Mitochondrial function, for example, can be assayed in cell lines and primary cells through a variety of approaches. One of the most common approaches is the glucose-galactose assay performed in HepG2 cells [5]. In this assay, HepG2 cells are grown in media with either glucose- or galactose-based nutrition. Differences in toxicity susceptibility between the two culture conditions are used to identify potential mitochondrial liabilities. More recently, this approach has been adapted to primary rat hepatocytes in sandwich culture, suggesting additional more phenotypically relevant cell culture models could be used for this purpose [123]. Another common assay uses the Seahorse platform which enables sensitive measurements of cell metabolism. Finally, imaging-based approaches can also yield high-content and high-throughput assessments of mitochondrial function using labeled functional probes. Other approaches involve the measurement of oxygen consumption or changes in morphology in isolated mitochondria. Many of these same probes can also be multiplexed in high-content imaging to screen large numbers of compounds for multiple endpoints with rapid efficiency. Other approaches involve covalent binding studies using liver microsomes or reactive metabolite trapping using nucleophilic trapping agents. Trapped metabolites can be subjected to analytical techniques for structural identification. However, these approaches do not clearly demonstrate a relationship between transporter inhibition and toxicity and do not readily factor in the impact of exposure on response. Several new approaches hold promise for linking alterations in bile acid homeostasis to functional changes at the hepatocyte level.

Lowe syndrome

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The upper parts of both lungs are riddled with gray-white areas of caseation and multiple areas of softening and cavitation erectile dysfunction effects order 20 mg megalis with amex. Bacterial infections Progressive pulmonary tuberculosis may ensue in older adults and immunosuppressed people. The apical lesion expands into adjacent lung and eventually erodes into bronchi and vessels. This evacuates the caseous center, creating a ragged, irregular cavity that is poorly walled off by fibrous tissue. With adequate treatment the process may be arrested, although healing by fibrosis often distorts the pulmonary architecture. If the treatment is inadequate or if host defenses are impaired, the infection may spread via airways, lymphatic channels, or the vascular system. Miliary pulmonary disease occurs when organisms draining through lymphatics enter the venous blood and circulate back to the lung. Individual lesions are either microscopic or small, visible (2-mm) foci of yellow-white consolidation scattered through the lung parenchyma (the adjective "miliary" is derived from the resemblance of these foci to millet seeds). Miliary lesions may expand and coalesce, resulting in consolidation of large regions or even whole lobes of the lung. With progressive pulmonary tuberculosis, the pleural cavity is invariably involved, and serous pleural effusions, tuberculous empyema, or obliterative fibrous pleuritis may develop. Progressive primary tuberculosis that occurs in immunosuppressed individuals spreads in a similar manner. Endobronchial, endotracheal, and laryngeal tuberculosis may develop by spread through lymphatic channels or from expectorated infectious material. The mucosal lining may be studded with minute granulomatous lesions that may only be apparent microscopically. Systemic miliary tuberculosis occurs when bacteria disseminate through the systemic arterial system. Miliary tuberculosis is most prominent in the liver, bone marrow, spleen, adrenals, meninges, kidneys, fallopian tubes, and epididymis, but can involve any organ. Isolated tuberculosis may appear in any of the organs or tissues seeded hematogenously and may be the presenting manifestation. Organs that are commonly involved include the meninges (tuberculous meningitis), kidneys (renal tuberculosis), adrenals (formerly an important cause of Addison disease), bones (osteomyelitis), and fallopian tubes (salpingitis). Paraspinal "cold" abscesses in these patients may track along tissue planes and present as an abdominal or pelvic mass. Lymphadenitis is the most frequent presentation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, usually occurring in the cervical region ("scrofula"). As previously mentioned, intestinal tuberculosis contracted by the drinking of contaminated milk is common in countries where bovine tuberculosis is present and milk is not pasteurized. In countries where milk is pasteurized, intestinal tuberculosis is more often caused by the swallowing of coughed-up infective material in patients with advanced pulmonary disease. Typically the organisms are seeded to mucosal lymphoid aggregates of the small and large bowel, which then undergo granulomatous inflammation that can lead to ulceration of the overlying mucosa, particularly in the ileum. Treatment differs for these pathogens, so identifying the specific organism is important. Newer molecular methods are better able to distinguish these two species, as well as M. Normal host defense mechanisms usually prevent infection, so vulnerable individuals include those with structural lung damage, cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis, primary ciliary dyskinesia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or pneumoconiosis. Rapidly growing mycobacterial infections are often associated with postsurgical or posttraumatic infections. Radiographic characteristics of disease may be fibrocavitary lesions primarily in the upper lobes or nodular bronchiectasis with multifocal clusters of small nodules. In lepromatous leprosy, widespread invasion of the mycobacteria into Schwann cells and into endoneural and perineural macrophages damages the peripheral nervous system. As mentioned earlier, tuberculoid and lepromatous leprosy are associated with different T-cell responses. Lepromatous leprosy is associated with a weak Th1 response and, in some cases, a relative increase in the Th2 response. The net result is weak cell-mediated immunity and an inability to control the bacteria, which can be readily visualized in tissue sections. Occasionally, most often in the lepromatous form, antibodies are produced against M. Paradoxically, these antibodies are usually not protective, but they may form immune complexes with free antigens that can lead to erythema nodosum, vasculitis, and glomerulonephritis. There may be a yellowish pigmentation to these organs secondary to the large number of organisms present in swollen macrophages. Nerve degeneration causes skin anesthesias and skin and muscle atrophy that render the person liable to trauma of the affected parts, leading to the development of chronic skin ulcers. Facial nerve involvement can lead to paralysis of the eyelids, with keratitis and corneal ulcerations. On microscopic examination, all sites of involvement have granulomatous lesions closely resembling those found in tuberculosis. Because of the strong host defense, bacilli are almost never found, hence the name paucibacillary leprosy. The presence of granulomas and absence of bacteria reflect strong T-cell immunity. Because leprosy pursues an extremely slow course, spanning decades, most patients die with leprosy rather than of it.

Candela, 41 years: Grossly, the lungs are usually congested, and vascular engorgement with or without pulmonary edema is demonstrable microscopically in the majority of cases. Even with a single mutant collagen chain, normal collagen trimers cannot be formed, and hence there is a marked deficiency of collagen. The aromatic amines and azo dyes are another class of indirect-acting carcinogens that were widely used in the past in the aniline dye and rubber industries.

Lukar, 40 years: The integration of the various inputs ensures adequate systemic perfusion, despite regional demand differences. Hepatitis C in hemodialysis patients: current global magnitude, natural history, diagnostic difficulties, and preventive measures. Alcoholic persons may sometimes suffer from malnutrition but more frequently have deficiencies of vitamins, especially thiamine, pyridoxine, folate, and vitamin A, as a result of poor diet, defective gastrointestinal absorption, abnormal nutrient utilization and storage, increased metabolic needs, and an increased rate of loss.

Raid, 65 years: Corneal epithelial disease is thought to be due to direct viral damage, and corneal stromal disease appears to be immune-mediated. Vertebral and ophthalmic arteries, as well as the aorta (giant cell aortitis), also can be involved. This is due in large part to altered splenic function, which is severely impaired in children by congestion and poor blood flow, and completely absent in adults because of splenic infarction.

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